1] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal first Report of Session 2014–15, HL Paper 37 (London, Stationery workplace, 2014), para.

1] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal first Report of Session 2014–15, HL Paper 37 (London, Stationery workplace, 2014), para.

It’s also hard due to the under-reporting of the kind of criminal activity, the economic and hr required for investigating it, the tendency to research the simple goals, the role that is limited of authorities and its particular basic inexperience and neglect of criminal activity on social networking and also the implications of legislation on freedom of phrase. Finally, what the law states just includes a impact that is limited behavior – this will be additionally the situation in social networking, where architecture or rule additionally plays an essential role in managing behaviour. Any response that is regulatory need to account fully for and properly deal with these challenges. Consequently, whenever talking about responses that are regulatory this is done within the context for the challenges.


Criminal activity on personal Media – The full Case for Linking Users’ Social networking Registrations for their National Identity quantity

OVERVIEW: After talking about the issues with regulating, policing and crime that is investigating physical violence on social networking, the task will now cope with the problem of reactions to your challenges. The objective of this chapter would be to measure the effectiveness regarding the present British approach to crime that is regulating social networking and provide the choice of connecting users’ social networking registrations using their nationwide identification quantity. Firstly, the UK that is current approach be evaluated by examining its theoretical fundamentals and exactly how it’s been implemented within the context of social networking. Next, the chapter will show the proposition of presenting the way of measuring linking users’ registration for their ID by talking about two types of instances when a requirement that is similar been place in training – the required enrollment of prepaid SIM cards in a few states and also the Sina Weibo social networking in Asia. Finally, the chapter will talk about the potential of this measure to deal with the difficulties of investigation and regulation of criminal activity on social networking in the united kingdom.

The UK that is current approach well summarised within the House of Lords choose Committee on Communications report on social networking and unlawful offences: ‘what is maybe not an offense off-line shouldn’t be an offense on the web.’[76] Based on the conclusions for the report, the UK that is existing legislation effective at working with task of managing criminal activity on social networking.[77] The side that is substantive of approach is placed away within the Crown Prosecution’s provider October 2016 directions on prosecution of crimes involving communications sent through social networking.[78] The rules divide the offences on social networking in four categories[79] – (1) communications which constitute threat to violence or damage to home; (2) communications that particularly target people (harassment, stalking, managing behavior, revenge pornography, etc.); (3) communications which add up to a breach of the court purchase or perhaps a statutory prohibition (juror misconduct, contempt of court, breach of restraining purchase, etc.) and (4) grossly unpleasant, indecent, obscene or false communications. It sets out of the current legislation that is primary tackling criminal activity on social networking and also the concepts whenever using it – there is certainly high limit during the evidential phase, the context of social networking where interaction is instantaneous, casual, frequently sick considered and with unintended effects, the general public desire for prosecution of criminal activity on social networking and Art. 10 ECHR on freedom of phrase.[80]


Overview for the UK that is current Approach Respect to Crime on Social networking:[81]

The UK that is current approach in line with the concept of online-offline equivalence – the presumption that there must be equivalence of therapy between on the web and offline tasks and on the web and offline law respectively.[90] The concept are split into equivalence of application (the responsibilities imposed by the norm that is legal be comparable) and equivalence of what the law states ( the result of using a norm ought to be comparable).[91] While equivalence of application can be achieved, easily equivalence of result is not assured according to Web legislation. Types of such divergence of results would be the application of copyright legislation to your online environment which is in line with the concept of copying, legislation of the search engines which can’t be equated to that particular of telecoms, access providers or broadcasters.

Social media platforms converge audio-visual and printing news with interaction platforms, therefore making the utilization of the equivalence that is online-offline problematic. Criminal activity on social networking varies from criminal activity within the world that is physical. For instance, cyberbullying varies from bullying in many means. The victims don’t know their perpetrators – roughly in about 31 percent of instances victims understand their perpetrator.[92 within the most of instances] it has crucial implications for the victims that they can act without fear of punishment and makes them commit crimes that they would not otherwise commit in real life as it reinforces the perpetrators’ sense.[93] Although the target of conventional bullying can actually escape the torments for the bully, cyberbullying victims are deprived of the choice because so many individuals use technology for a basis that is regular so that the target are tormented whenever you want and anyplace with out any safe spot to retreat to.[94] There is certainly clinical research showing that some types of cyberbullying cause more harm than conventional bullying, particularly cyberbullying involving blood circulation of videos and images[95] as when such content is released on social networking, its reach grows exponentially which is hard to limit it, causing permanent humiliation for the target.[96]

Provided these substantive distinctions, it’s difficult to observe how the concept of online-offline equivalence can result in regulation that is adequate of on social networking. Firstly, when it comes to equivalence of application, as there is certainly inherent trouble in distinguishing the perpetrators of cybercrimes, and therefore, crooks feel it is not possible to apply the law online in the same manner as in the physical world that they can act with impunity. Next, so far as equivalence of result can be involved, because the damage due to cyberbullying may also be more than the damage due to conventional bullying, using the law that is same perhaps not create equivalent lead to regards to delivering justice to your victims. Cyberbullying is an example of a social crime that is media-assisted. The problem of inadequacy for the legislation that is current a whole lot worse in respect to social-media enabled and social-media reliant crimes. The release of disturbing live videos on Facebook[97] – a criminal practice that became commonplace after the release of the ‘Facebook live’ feature in 2016 for example, there are no readily available legislative means of prevent.

All this demonstrates that contrary to the claim produced by the House of Lords report that the present British legislation is effective at working with criminal activity on social networking, this isn’t the situation, and adjustment that is either serious the current framework will become necessary, or basically brand new legislation that deals particularly with all the problem of cybercrime ought to be enacted. A requirement to connect social networking individual registrations with all the users’ nationwide identity quantity is really a proposition in light of the issues.

This concept arises from the insurance policy in a few states to oblige mobile operators to need evidence of identification from users if they subscribe to A sim that is pre-paid card.[98] This requirement is justified on grounds of assisting police force agencies in apprehending crooks and terrorists, therefore causing decrease in criminal activity, terrorism and  ehaviour that is anti-social.[99] It had been used in training within the context of Internet services in Asia where last year the federal government introduced a legislation needing users of numerous online solutions to join up using their names and offer their ID that is national quantity.[100] It has been place in training by the largest Chinese networking that is social – Sina Weibo.[101] Just How this proposition did in training will below be discussed.

The explanation that various states utilize for introducing this kind of policy vary, however the most typical one is curbing unlawful task.[102] Other reasons consist of curbing theft that is widespread of phones. Such is the actual situation in Latin America in which the phone that is mobile quantity (IMEI quantity) is registered against a specific SIM to facilitate research of theft.[103] The main concern would be to make sure that there is certainly sufficient age verification process.[104 in other nations] based on the conclusions for the GSM Association’s 2016 report about the subject,[105] your decision of states whether or not to adopt this kind of policy is straight from the accessibility to nationwide identification papers that may be compared to the official federal government registry.[106] For instance, the united kingdom doesn’t have formal ID system that is verifiable. The repealed Identity Cards Act 2006[107] included a supply for developing an identity that is national,[108] that was to become a dependable record of registerable details about people in the united kingdom. The possible lack of an identity that is national and consistent evidence of ID is therefore pertaining to the possible lack of a requirement of mandatory enrollment of pre-paid SIMs.[109] In instances where there isn’t any verifiable registry that is national evidence of ID is required upon registration, usually the real presenting for the papers and also the real existence for the customer are needed before their enrollment are prepared.[110]

The registration that is mandatory of SIMs is affected with a range disadvantages. There’s a possibility for fraudulent enrollment of SIMs by crooks, that have taken ID details of people. The measure additionally starts up the chance for emergence of black colored areas for fraudulently registered or taken SIM cards, that may possibly be another nagging issue in the bowl of what the law states enforcement agencies.[111] Moreover, the SIM or the device are actually directed at someone or taken, generally there isn’t method to make sure that the one who has committed a criminal activity may be the person under whose name an unknown number is registered. Finally, a SIM enrollment requirement is jurisdictionally restricted, generally there isn’t any method to block international crooks whom target a specific nation running a mandatory enrollment requirement using a phone in a nation which doesn’t have this kind of requirement.[112] The approach that is alternative SIM enrollment is legal interception of communications which need phone operators to possess ability in position to monitor communications in real-time and permit use of the enforcement agencies whenever required upon authorisation through the appropriate authorities. This is actually the approach the united kingdom has adopted – the development that is latest in this respect ended up being the Interception of Communications Act 2016. The UK’s approach is consistent with the requirements of Art in respect to cybercrime. 21 Council of European countries Cybercrime Convention,[113] which empowers its states that are signatory legislate and offer measures for real-time collection and interception of content information, susceptible to the conditions in Art. 15(1) which can be that the measure is prior to the ECHR. There isn’t any supply within the Cybercrime Convention needing states to consider connecting of users’ registration for their ID that is national quantity.

Asia includes a long reputation for trying to introduce a policy that is real-name online.[114] Initial tries to do so are not effective without it before the introduction regarding the measure.[115 because it wasn't feasible to force users to supply their nationwide ID quantity retroactively, in other words. when they have actually registered] As soon as the policy ended up being introduced on Sina Weibo, this problem ended up being handled by disabling the reviews functions of old users whom will not register their ID that is national quantity.[116] The explanation behind the insurance policy would be to eliminate speech that is‘bad on the web. The due date for the utilization of the enrollment via a ID that is national on Sina Weibo expired in March 2012, however the difficulties with applying the insurance policy persisted following the due date.[117]

The development of connecting users’ registration using their ID that is national quantity a number of issues. Firstly, there is opposition with respect to social media platforms such as for instance Sina Weibo due to the enormous expenses of applying the insurance policy and making certain users’ information is held protected, the administrative burden of verifying users’ registrations are genuine[118] and also the impact that is negative company because it leads to withdrawal of users.[119] Furthermore, you can form any ID that is chinese upon enrollment, generally there is really a big market for taken or leaked ID figures with no method to confirm or perhaps a enrollment is accurate and genuine.[120] This led to proliferation of local social media after China denied market access to foreign social networking platforms such as Facebook. The utilization of the insurance policy by the biggest networking that is social – Sina Weibo, led to migration of users to alternate platforms which do not run the insurance policy and hence, break what the law states.[121] The residual users found approaches to circumvent the necessity by establishing their location to ‘overseas’ or through purchasing a SIM and utilizing Sina Weibo via a network that is mobile.[122] There’s a SIM that is mandatory card requirement in Asia, however the sellers of smartphones frequently fill out fake information.[123] During the time that is same there was small that the federal government can perform to compel all social networking web sites to implement the ID enrollment policy. The federal government has desire for maintaining all users on a single or two platforms then focusing on these along with its policy. The marketplace in Asia is fragmented after the withdrawal of worldwide media that are social and for that reason, users no more utilize predominantly a couple of platforms.[124] The federal government could close the infringing platforms, however it cannot avoid starting of the latest people and fragmentation for the market.

There are a variety of explanations why needing social networking web sites to link users’ enrollment for their nationwide ID quantity might have impact that is positive police force in the united kingdom.

The House of Lords choose Committee on Communications report dedicated to social networking and unlawful offences rightly defines the need for police force agencies in order to effortlessly recognize crooks on social media – “there is small point in criminalising particular behavior and also at the same time frame legitimately making that exact same behavior impractical to detect.”[125] Hence proportionate to need operators that are website establish the identification of users before they could register a merchant account.[126] Subsequently however, in line with the committee that is select, users should be permitted to make use of the social media platform through the use of pseudonyms.[127]

There is certainly some logic in this declaration in light for the safety threats, the spread of ubiquitous surveillance, terrorist propaganda, criminal activity and organised criminal activity on social media.[128] A kind of that will be the necessity to link users’ enrollment along with their nationwide ID quantity, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has noted that this kind of measure improves behavior on social networking, produces a more civil environment and it has a preventive energy over stalking and harassment by presenting accountability for actions on social media.[129 with regards to real-name policies] Interestingly, the EFF has recommended that applying the necessity will certainly reduce the necessity for legal interception of interaction, currently completed with a true range governments, such as the UK.[130] This can be a conclusion that is consistent considering the fact that as noted above, governments which do not have basic nationwide registry and centralised recognition system via a uniform identity document have a tendency to depend on spying the web. The problem of increased spying is among the big concerns that are public the united kingdom. It may be argued that when the introduction of ID registration on social networking causes less spying with respect to the federal government, the media that are social could be more ready to surrender their private information. This theory, nevertheless, is not tested in training. Almost no conclusions in this respect might be drawn through the Sina Weibo experience since federal government control for the Web in Asia is element of everyday activity and there’s no such revolt that is public the training like in the situation regarding the UK’s extensive interception of communications.

An incredible number of reports on Facebook are part of kids that are beneath the age that is minimum creating a profile in the platform – 13 years.[131] Presenting a requirement to link users’ enrollment along with their ID number is really a real method of presenting age verification during the gateway of social networking web sites and working with the issue with under-aged users.[132] Pertaining to this time, social networking systems are affected by an issue having a number that is massive of records.[133] Asking for ID number upon enrollment will reduce the amount substantially of fake records.

As talked about in Chapter we,[134] among the challenges of policing and crime that is prosecuting social networking may be the immense individual and savings that this involves and also the time it takes. Having available way to recognize the purpose of origin for some crimes on social networking will relieve this issue up to a extent that is great. This may lessen the training to depend on amateur detectives – theoretically savvy residents whom participate in investigating criminal activity without having to be conscious of the code that is official of with this task then ahead evidence to your authorities. Connecting users’ registration to their nationwide ID quantity will even reduce the distraction for the authorities with finding evidence that is previously unavailable small criminal activity and get back its concentrate on severe criminal activity and physical violence on social networking.

The linking of users’ registration on social networking platforms with their national ID number, has the potential for expanding the impact of law on behaviour on social media by introducing accountability for one’s actions. In Chapter I it had been argued that what the law states has restricted effect on behavior as behavior can also be impacted by the norms that are social market and also the architecture for the environment.[135] You will find 3 ways by which legislation influences results – acting under risk of punishment (first-order enforcement), being susceptible to casual sanctions by the culture because of the legislation (second-order enforcement) and internalisation for the legislation and avoidance of committing crimes because of the possibility of guilt (third-order enforcement).[136] The measure under conversation has got the potential of reinforcing the third-order enforcement because the crooks’ sense as it is difficult to identify them and attribute the criminal act to them will be addressed that they can act with impunity on social media.

OVERVIEW: The present British approach to regulating and crime that is investigating physical violence on social networking is dependant on the presumption that what’s perhaps not an offense on the web ought not to ever be looked at an offense on the web. This is actually the alleged equivalence principle that is online-offline. Nevertheless, you will find substantive variations in terms of scale, range and level of damage between comparable crimes within the world that is physical on social networking as demonstrated by the exemplory case of cyberbullying. Moreover, you will find social media-dependent crimes, that are not familiar to your justice system that is criminal. These facets give the UK that is current legislation to manage conventional criminal activity insufficient to deal with the specificity of criminal activity on social networking. The proposition to need from social network platforms to request users’ nationwide identification quantity upon enrollment is really a departure through the concept of online-offline equivalence. It had been first introduced within the context of smartphones with all the requirement of mandatory enrollment of SIM cards in a few states and networks that are social Asia. Both in full instances, there were difficulties with enforcing the measure, due to the fact users try to circumvent it through different means. The measure has some restricted prospective to ease the nagging issues of legislation and research of criminal activity on social networking in the united kingdom. It could facilitate the attribution of unlawful functions and therefore, partially curtail those activities of crooks. Moreover, it features a genuine possible to decrease the price of and time allocated to investigating criminal activity on social networking and minimize the amount of fake records and records owned by minors that are under-aged. Perhaps, it may additionally enhance third-order enforcement for the statutory legislation through self-restraint of crooks and minimize the necessity for concealed surveillance with respect to the federal government.

[1] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal first Report of Session 2014–15, HL Paper 37 (London, Stationery workplace, 2014), para. 7

[2] Statista, ‘Forecast of Twitter individual figures within the great britain (UK) from 2014 to 2021 (in million users)’, Statista (online) https://www.statista.com/statistics/553538/predicted-number-of-facebook-users-in-the-united-kingdom-uk/>

[3] Statista, ‘Number of Twitter users within the great britain (UK) from 2012 to 2018 (in million users)’, Statista (online) https://www.statista.com/statistics/271350/twitter-users-in-the-united-kingdom-uk/>

[4] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal para. 9

[5] Khan, U. ‘Juror dismissed from the test after utilizing Facebook to make a decision’, The Telegraph (online), 24 2008 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/lawreports/3510926/Juror-dismissed-from-a-trial-after-using-Facebook-to-help-make-a-decision.html> november

[6] Ibid.

[7] HM Attorney General v Davey [2013] EWHC 2317

[8] Ibid., para. 6

[9] Chapter 4

[10] Dodds, L. ‘’Tiger porn’ case: Can you fare better compared to CPS?’, The Telegraph (online), 28 2014 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/law-and-order/11193829/Tiger-porn-case-Can-you-do-better-than-the-CPS.html> october

[11] Keep Calm Talk Law, ‘The State of Extreme Law within the UK’, Keep relaxed Talk legislation Legal we Blog (online), 2 December 2014 http > that is://www.keepcalmtalklaw.co.uk/the-state-of-extreme-pornography-law-in-the-uk/

[12] Press Association, ‘Social media-related criminal activity reports up 780% in four years’, The Guardian (online), 27 December 2012 https://www.theguardian.com/media/2012/dec/27/social-media-crime-facebook-twitter>

[13] Statista, ‘Daily time allocated to social media by online users worldwide from 2012 to 2016 (in moments)’ https.statista.com/statistics/433871/daily-social-media-usage-worldwide/> that is://www

[14] Ibid.

[15] Pelgrin, W. ‘3 explanations why criminals exploit internet sites (and ideas to avoid getting scammed)’, CSO (online), 5 June 2013 http://www.csoonline.com/article/2133563/social-engineering/3-reasons-why-criminals-exploit-social-networks–and-tips-to-avoid-getting-scamme.html>

[16] France, L.S., Verdier, C. ‘Kardashian heist: Police say social media marketing made her a target’, CNN News (online), 5 October 2016 http.html> that is://edition.cnn.com/2016/10/04/entertainment/kim-kardashian-police-social-media/index

[17] Wall, D. ‘The Web being a Conduit for Criminal Activity’ (Version 2015), in Information Technology and the Criminal Justice System, edited by April Pattavina (Thousand Oaks, Sage, 2005) 77, pp october. 80-81

[18] Armstrong, H.L., Forde, P.J. ‘Internet privacy methods in computer crime’ [2003] 11(5) Ideas Management & Computer safety 209, p. 211

[19] Tsesis, A. ‘Terrorist Speech on Social Media’ [2017] 70(2) Vanderbilt Law Review 651, p. 655

[20] Berger, J.M. ‘The Evolution of Terrorist Propaganda: The Paris Attack and personal Media’, Brookings (online), 27 2015 https://www.brookings.edu/testimonies/the-evolution-of-terrorist-propaganda-the-paris-attack-and-social-media/> january

[21] Pease, K. ‘Crime futures and foresight: Challenging behaviour that is criminal the data age’, in criminal activity and also the Web: Cybercrimes and Cyberfears, modified by David Wall (London, Routledge 2001) 18, p. 22

[22] Ibid.

[23] Curtis, C. Anti-Social Behaviour: a Perspective that is multi-National of each and every day to your Extreme (London, Sage 2016), p. 69

[24] Evans, M. ‘Police dealing with tide that is rising of news crimes’, The Telegraph (online), 5 June 2015 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/11653092/Police-facing-rising-tide-of-social-media-crimes.html>

[25] Surette, R. ‘Performance Crime and Justice’ [2015] 27(2) present problems in Criminal Justice 195

[26] Surette, R. ‘How social networking is changing the way in which individuals commit crimes and police fight them’, LSE US Centre we Blog (online) http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/usappblog/2016/01/28/how-social-media-is-changing-the-way-people-commit-crimes-and-police-fight-them/>

[27] Wall, D. ‘The Web being a Conduit for Criminal Activity’, p. 81

[28] Žižek, S. Violence: Six Sideways Reflections (New York, Picador, 2008)

[29] Recuero, R. ‘Social Media and Symbolic Violence’, personal Media + Society 1 (April-June 2015), p. 1

[30] Boyd, D. network that is‘Social as networked publics: Affordances, characteristics, and implications’, in Networked self: identification, community, and tradition on social networks, modified by Zizi Papacharissi (nyc, Routledge, 2011) 39, p. 45

[31] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal first Report of Session 2014–15, HL Paper 37 (London, Stationery workplace, 2014), para. 9

[32] Ibid., para. 10

[33] Hörnle, J. ‘Countering the risks of online pornography – Shrewd regulation of lewd content’ [2011] 2(1) European Journal of Law and tech

[34] adjusted from Wall, D. ‘The Web being a Conduit for Criminal Activity’, p. 81

[35] Ibid., pp. 80-81

[36] meeting for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 1950, Rome, 4 1950 november

[37] Strohecker, D.P. ‘The Crisis of Authenticity: Symbolic Violence, Memes, Identity’, Cyborgology (online), 23 March 2012. https://thesocietypages.org/cyborgology/2012/03/23/the-crisis-of-authenticity-symbolic-violence-memes-identity/>

[38] R v Smith (Wallace Duncan) ( # 4) [2004] EWCA Crim 631, para. 55

[39] R v Sheppard & Anor [2010] EWCA Crim 65, para. 24

[40] Brenner, S., Koops, B.J. ‘Approaches to Cybercrime Jurisdiction’ [2004] 4(1) Journal of tall tech Law 1, p. 10

[41] Kohl, U. ‘Barbarians in Our Midst: ‘Cultural variety’ in the Transnational Web’ [2014] 5(1) European Journal of Law and tech

[42] Brenner, S., Koops, B.J. ‘Approaches to Cybercrime Jurisdiction’, p. 6

[43] Hörnle, J. ‘Countering the risks of online pornography’

[44] Crossley, L. ‘How police ‘ignore cybercrime’: only one in 100 instances is examined regardless of the amount of online fraudulence instances rocketing in current years’, day-to-day Mail (online), 24 2015 september < http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3247176/How-police-ignore-cybercrime-Just-one-100-cases-investigated-despite-number-online-fraud-cases-rocketing-recent-years.html>

[45] National Crime Agency, ‘NCA Strategic Cyber Business Group Cyber Crime Assessment 2016’, Variation 1.2, 7 2016 july. Offered at http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/publications/709-cyber-crime-assessment-2016/file>

[46] Wall, D. ‘Cybercrime, Media and Insecurity: The shaping of general public perceptions of cybercrime’ [2008] 22(1-2) Global overview of Law, Computers and Technology 45, p. 48

[47] Ibid., p. 56

[48] Ibid.

[49] Ibid., p. 57

[50] McGovern. A., Milivojevic, S. ‘Social news and criminal activity: the great, the bad and also the ugly’, The discussion (online), 16 2016 october < https://theconversation.com/social-media-and-crime-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly-66397>

[51] Pelley, V. ‘Who done it? Resident investigators mine social networking for crime clues’, Aljazeera America (online). 7 2014 june < http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/6/7/citizen-crime-sleuths.html>

[52] Lessig, L. ‘The Law for the Horse: exactly What Cyberlaw Might Teach?’ [1999]113 Harvard Law Review 501, pp. 506-509

[53] Lessig, L. Code variation 2.0 (nyc, Basic Books, 2006), p. 123

[54] Scott, R. ‘The Limits of Behavioural Theories of Law and Social Norms’ [2000] 86(8) Virginia Law Review 1603

[55] Lessig, L. Code version 2.0, p. 340

[56] Wang, F.Y., Zeng, D., Hendler, J., Zhang, Q., Feng, Z., Gao, Y., Wang, H., Lai, G. ‘A learn for the Human Flesh google: Crowd-Powered Expansion of Online Knowledge’ [2010] 43(8) Computer 45, p. 45

[57] Ibid., p. 341

[58] Plessis, A.The Rise and Fall regarding the SecondEmpire: 1852–1871, translated by Jonathan Mandelbaum (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1985), p. 121

[59] Wall, D. ‘Cybercrime, Media and Insecurity’, p. 57

[60] Ibid.

[61] Investigatory Powers Act 2016, Chapter 25

[62] Suter, L. ‘Taxman unleashes its computer’ that is‘snooper information does its have actually for you?’, The Telegraph (online), 7 2017 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/tax/return/taxman-unleashes-snooper-computer-information-does-have/> january

[63] Brenner, S. ‘At Light Speed: Attribution and reaction to Cybercrime/terrorism/warfare’ [2007] 97(2) Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 379, p. 405

[64] Brenner, S. ‘Toward a Criminal Law for Cyberspace: Distributed Security’ [2004] 10(2) Boston University Journal of Science and Technology Law, pp. 49-59

[65] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal para. 51

[66] Ibid., para. 52

[67] Harkin, G. ‘Tragic Erin called Ask.fm in committing suicide note, claims mother’, Independent Ireland (online), 14 2013 august < http://www.independent.ie/irish-news/tragic-erin-named-askfm-in-suicide-note-claims-mother-29497140.html>

[68] Defamation Act 2013, Chapter 26

[69] The Defamation (Operators of web sites) Regulations 2013, SI 2013/3028

[70] Brenner, S. ‘At Light Speed’, p. 407

[71] Ibid.

[72] Ibid., pp. 409-410

[73] Brenner, S., Schwerha IV, J. ‘Transnational Evidence Gathering and Prosecution that is local of Cybercrime’ [2002] 20(3) Journal of Computer and Ideas Law 347, p. 354

[74] Brenner, S. ‘At Light Speed’, p. 414

[75] Ibid., p. 415-416

[76] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal para. 32

[77] Ibid., p. 5

[78] Crown Prosecution Service, ‘Guidelines on prosecuting instances communications that are involving via social media’ (October 2016) < http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/a_to_c/communications_sent_via_social_media/>

[79] Ibid.

[80] Ibid., under Category 4

[81] Simplified and adapted from House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal pp. 30-31

[82] Chapter 49

[83] Chapter 34

[84] Chapter 100

[85] Chapter 40

[86] Chapter 21

[87] Chapter 27

[88] Chapter 37

[89] Chapter 44

[90] Reed, C. ‘Online and Offline Equivalence: Aspiration and Achievement’ [2010]18(3) Global Journal of Law and i . t 248, p. 248